Churches

A church is a place of worship for the followers of the Christianity. “Church” means “to gather”. 

In the early days of Christianity, there were special houses for worship.

After a while, they start building special house to practice Christian rituals.

“a monastery” means “a farm or a farmer’s house”, and it is a building designated to worship in some religions, such as Buddhism and Christianity. It is for worshipping and meditation, and monks are taking care of it.

In the Old Town, there are 35 monasteries and synagogues; the most famous of them are Al-Qiama Church, Awjae’ Al-A’thra’a Church, the Monastery of St. Catherine, and Al-Sultan Monastery.

  • Pick a point from the map
  • Al Mukhallis Monastery

    Landmark Location:
    Located northwest of the Christian Quarter, near the new gate.

    Landmark History:

    The land purchased and built on, in 967 AH / 1559 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    The Mukhallis is one of the names that the Christians call upon Jesus Christ because they believe that He came to redeem them.

    Builder Name:

    French Fathers.

    Details of the shape:

    -The monastery contains valuable library, school, church, orphanage, pharmacy, printing press, oven, mill and a number of craft factories.
    -It purchased by the French Fathers from Karaj (lands belonging to Georgia) in 967 AH / 1559 AD, it became known as the Latin Catholic Monastery and the Monastery of the Franks, also known as the Monastery of St. John the Theologian.
    -Became the base of their monasteries and consecrated to the guardian of the Holy Land.
    -It also oversees the feeding and housing of poor families of Latin Christians who in 1945 reached about 2,250 families.

  • The Casanova Monastery (The new house)

    Landmark Location:
    The monastery is located near the new gate in the northwest of the Christian Quarter.

    Builder Name:

    Catholics.

    Details of the shape:

    -An old building of pale stone.
    -The monastery built to be a place for the stay of pilgrims and Christian visitors, it is one of the holy sites of Catholic
    missionaries in the city, Catholics claim that the monastery is one of the property of the French Fathers known as “Abi Habla”; they have Faramanat decisions dating back to Mameluke and Turkish era.

  • Monastery of the Sultan

    Landmark Location:
    Adjacent to the Church of the Resurrection from the southeast.

    Landmark History:
    The end of the nineteenth century.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after Salahaddin, who returned to the Copts after liberating Jerusalem from the Crusaders.

    Builder Name:

    The Copts

    Details of the shape:

    -The monastery contains two churches, one small called “Angel” and the other large called the “four animals”; The
    monastery includes an ancient Egyptian wooden barrier, an ivory restaurant, and an area of ​1800 square meters.
    -After the conquest of Jerusalem by the Franks, the Latins took over the monastery that was in the hands of the Copts, after the conquest of Jerusalem by Salahaddin, he returned it to them.
    -It is worth mentioning that the monastery dedicated to the monks, the nuns have built another monastery with the consent of the Ottoman Sultan near Bab al-Khalil called the “Monastery of St. George” The legitimate arguments of this monastery indicate that many excavations carried out during the 19th century, it noted that there is another monastery called Sultan Monastery. Its population of Christians and a Coptic monk has its keys, and this indicates that the Copts were a weak group, as they also lost a lot of their religious places from the seventeenth century
    except a small monastery and the size attributed to them is located in The direction of Bab Al-Amoud is called “Deir Al- Janah (Monastery of Paradise)”.
    -As for visitors to the monastery, the Copts allocated another monastery to them in (1255 AH / 1839 AD) above the Khan that attached to their monastery, Monastery of the Sultan

  • Deir Al Banat (The Girls Monastery)

    Landmark Location:
    Between the Monastery of the Virgin and the monastery of Mar Dimitri near the Khan of the Copts.

    Landmark History:

    Year 594 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Named because this type of monasteries fortified for the establishment of girls entering the monastic order.

    Builder Name:

    Patriarch Ilyas I of the Greek Orthodox.

    Details of the shape:

    -Contains two churches, one of which called the land of St. Melana and the other called Mary the Great, the Virgin Maiden.
    -An Orthodox Monastery of the Greek Orthodox.

  • The Maronite Monastery

    Landmark Location:
    Located next to the gate of Hebron between Alon market and the Armenian Quarter.

    Landmark History:

    6/5/1995.

    Reason of the name:

    For the Maronites who built it (followers of the Maronite Church)

    Builder Name:

    Followers of the Maronite Church.

    Details of the shape:

    The monastery followed by the Maronite Catholics and was a residence for them, which is archaeological.

  • St. George’s Monastery “of the Copts”

    Landmark Location:
    Located in the Maronite Quarter near the gate of Hebron.

    Landmark History:

    Around 1700 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after St. George. Mar: A Syriac word means "Mr".

    Builder Name:

    The Copts.

    Details of the shape:

    -The monastery contains a church with a temple where the Masscelebrated on the Feast of the Martyr Mar Gerges on 7 October each year; in return, the Copts will perform mass on Christmas Eve and morning at the Armenian Church of the Nativity on the Armenian altar in Bethlehem.

  • Monastery of St. Jacob “Monastery of St. James the Great / Monastery of Saint Jacob Zubdi”

    Landmark Location:
    In the Armenian Quarter between the center of the Qashlaq (center of the police) and the gate of the Prophet David.

    Landmark History:

    Before Islam.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after St. Jacob the son of Zubidi, who was named the Great Jacob.

    Builder Name:

    Herod the Great.

    Details of the shape:

    -The monastery is one of the most beautiful monasteries and the largest in the Old Town, its area is one sixth of the area of ​​the Old Town and made the Armenians a home for their patriarchate and a school of theology, also a library containing manuscripts and many books and miscellaneous. While the church in the monastery, it contains circular
    decorations in an oriental style and blue walls because of its blue tile and floor with carpets and lamps of gold and silver, facade of the building construction court. The monastery contains 500 water tanks, in which there are a
    number of churches such as the monastery of Zaytouna “for nuns”, halls and museums, including a school for girls.
    The library in the monastery contains 4,000 manuscripts and 30,000 printed books, this is the appreciation of Aref al-Arif in 1947, as the monastery was one of the first to own a printing press in the early 20th century.
    -One of the historians reported that the monastery was a garage and then a Romania and named the old monastery of St. Jacob Zubdi then became the Armenians rent.
    -The monastery built in the year 613 AD, and the church built around the second half of the twelfth century, the church renovated in the thirteenth century AD 1300 AD, The monastery also called: the Monastery of St. James the Great and the Monastery of St. Jacob the Zubdi.

  • Monastery of St. John the Baptist (Monastery of Saint John Al-Qara’ah)

    Landmark Location:
    The monastery is located between Aloun market and the street leading to the Christian Quarter.

    Landmark History:

    The monastery contains two churches; one built in 450 AD (Byzantium), and the other in 1048AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after prophet Yahya peace be upon him, who’s called "Saint John" by the Christians. Mar Syriac word means "Mr."

    Builder Name:

    Built in the Fatimid era.

    Details of the shape:

    -Contains a dome and two churches, one of which is underground and Byzantine style.
    -It hosts a pilgrimage for pilgrims and visitors; and it has been shaped like a cross.
    -The monastery is an archeological site of the Greek Orthodox, dating back to the Byzantine era in Palestine.
    -This monastery also known as the Monastery of Saint John the Qura’a, the role of this saint establishment is Expression the call of Jesus Christ.
    -The Franciscan made this monastery and the two churches a hospital and seat of the Knights of St, John in 1099 AD after their conquest of Jerusalem, when Salahaddin restored Jerusalem; he restored the original building with the rest of the buildings back to the Roman year 1187.

  • The Monastery of the Virgin (Deir Al-Sitt Maryam / Sitna Maryam Monastry)

    Landmark Location:
    The monastery is located south of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, to the east of the Omari Mosque, not separated from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher except the Omari Mosque.

    Landmark History:

    Built in 494 AD, in the Byzantine era.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after Mary, peace be upon her.
    Builder Name: Built during the reign of Patriarch Elias I in 494 AD.

    Details of the shape:
    -The monastery contains a number of rooms for visitors for staying, and where the monk lives, which serves the tomb of St.Mary off Aljesmania.
    -The Byzantine monastery is an ancient Greek Orthodox.

  • Prophet Ibrahim Monastery

    Landmark Location:
    Located in the courtyard of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, inside the walls of the Old Town in the Christian Quarter.

    Landmark History:

    Dating back to the Roman era in Palestine, around 335 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after prophet Ibrahim peace be upon him.

    Builder Name:

    The first to be constructed believed to have been Queen Helena and she reconstructed it.

    Details of the shape:

    -The monastery now houses two churches: the Church of Our Father Ibrahim, and the Church of the Twelve Apostles.
    -The monastery is an archeological monastery that dates back to the Greek Orthodox, it destroyed in 614 CE after the Persians occupied the city of Jerusalem, it destroyed until the Russians took it from the Turkish in 1887 and it renovated.
    -They gave part of it to the Romans, built their monastery and built the Russians in the other part monastery, which is located near the gate of Khan al-Zayt known Al-Mascobia.

  • Habash Monastery

    Landmark Location:
    The top of the cross cave adjacent to the Church of the Resurrection.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after Orthodox Ethiopians who built it.

    Builder Name:

    The Orthodox Ethiopians - a group that won victory in the year 400 AD.

    Details of the shape:

    The monastery is the last of the remains of Ahbash in the Old Town, and there has been a dispute for years as part of the monastery of the Sultan of the Copts.

  • Lutheran Church (Church of Savior “Fadi” / Tanning Church)

    Landmark Location:
    Located south of the monastery of Ibrahim, east of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

    Landmark History:

    In 1898.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after Martin Luther who created the Protestant doctrine.

    Builder Name:
    Protestants.

    Details of the shape:

    -The church known for its tall tower, which is one of the tallest towers in the Old City and overlooks the whole of Jerusalem, with a height of 48 meters and 177 stairs.
    -The church built on land that considered a part of the Al- Marastan (the hospital) Alsalahi.
    -Sultan Abdulaziz gave the land to the Crown Prince of Prussia, Prince Frederick Wilhelm, who took over the throne of the empire. The church opened in the presence of Emperor Prussia Gliom II. It also called the “Fadi” Church and the Dibagha Church, after the street in which it is located.

  • Monastery of St. Marqs (Monastery of the Syrians / Monastery of St. Marqash)

    Landmark Location:
    Located in the southern part of the historic lane of the Jerusalem lanes, known as Hart Al Tabana, which dominated by the Syrians today spread.

    Builder Name:
    Syriac Orthodox.

    Details of the shape:
    -Originally, the monastery was a Byzantine church known as the Church of the Virgin, which still exists today. It also took the place of the diocese of the Syriac, and the Byzantine church destroyed from the days of the Fatimid period,
    of the Fatimid Alhakem be amrellah of the fourth century AH (1009 AD), It abandoned until it restored in 1272 AH / 1855 AD, then expanded in 1298 AH (1880 AD).
    -References to him and to some Syrian monks and their other affairs mentioned in some of the arguments of the Shari’a Court of Jerusalem, and it believed that Christ held the Last Supper.

  • Church of the Holy Sepulcher

    Landmark Location:
    Located in the Christians Quarter in the northwest part of the Old Town.

    Landmark History:

    About 335 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Christians believe that Jesus get up from death three days after his burial in this church.

    Builder Name:

    Queen Helena the mother of King Constantine.

    Details of the shape:

    -The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located at the corner of the South Eastern Church of the Resurrection, it contains decorations, beautiful mosaics, images, icons and marble-covered land, topped by two domes, one is a large dome above the Holy Sepulcher and the other is smaller and called the dome
    of the Church of the half world.
    -Christians believe that it also contains seven graves of the most prominent Franciscan clergy and a number of Crusader kings such as Yusuf al-Rami and his family. Their graves are located in the Western Temple of the Holy tomb, also there are the graves of Godfrey and Buldoinmen are the kings of the Franks, there is an unidentified grave, in front of the Church There is a tomb for the Crusader commander “Philippe Duetti” and another tomb at the Church of St. Jacob. There are many unknown graves in this place because the land was originally a cemetery and five graves, found in the church 13 wells to collect rainwater.
    -As for the Certificates of historians, they described the shape of the church as characterized by the beauty of decorations, inscriptions and colored mosaics, also the circular shape, it contains columns and corridors and the Holy Tomb is located in a small cave carved in rock and low entrance, and the main gate- the southern entrance-.
    -The construction of the dome of the church is an iron with two nodes in one center and the sides of the dome connected to the pillars of iron, higher opened of the dome is a glass curtain. The dome from the outside covered with bullets and the interior lined with tinned grease.
    -The church also contains a Christian chapel in the form of hexagonal and 26 feet long and 17.7 feet long, in the eastern prayer corridor there is another chapel called the Chapel of the Angels where 15 lamps light up. Divide between the Orthodox and the Latin (5), Armenians (4) and Copts (1), there is a stone covered with marble in the center of the chapel.
    -The church built in the place where the crucifixion of which Jesus crucified found, as Christians believe, and it is one of the churches in which all denominations and Christian groups participate, the relations and rights were organized and arranged throughout the Islamic ages Catholics and Armenians.
    -This church is a witness to the Arab-Muslim tolerance it witnessed.
    -The Persians also burned the church in 614 AD, restored it to the monk of Modestus, the head of the Abbaidine monastery, many of the travelers made their trips to Jerusalem and the Old City.

    History of the Church in the Islamic Period:
    -When the conquest of Jerusalem in 636 AD, Omar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, give Christians safety on themselves and their churches did not hurt them. He did not accept to pray in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher when he offered to pray to him, and prayed close to them for fear that the Muslims then to take the church on the pretext that it is an Islamic right and evidence of that by his connections.
    -The church rebuilt by Patriarch Thomas I in 817 AD, during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun.
    -In 965, the church burned down and its dome fallen down until it rebuilt in the time of Patriarch Joseph II in 980 AD.
    -In the Fatimid era, Caliph Alhakem be’amrellah ordered the demolition of the church in 1009 AD, and the Christians and the Church of Constantine destroyed it, then he returned and allowed the Christians to build it again.
    Then they built the Holy tomb Church, changed it from its original form and did not complete the construction due to the poverty in which they lived, in 1035 AD, Christians allowed building the church again, the new building built in 1048 AD.
    -When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099, they built it and preserved its buildings, they assembled the temples in one church, they united the Anastasia Church and the martyrs, and other temples, and they built the east of the tomb, which is a half-world church now, and built a tower of bells.
    -After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 by Salahaddin, some of his companions pointed to the destruction and demolition of the church under the pretext that the Christians have no reason to occupy the Holy Land. He refused to follow the age of Ibn al-Khattab and ordered no one to harm, built in a place adjacent it a mosque and a band of
    worshiped Sufis named Alkhankah Alsalhia.
    -The church rebuilt more than once, especially the Holy tomb, where the Armenian temple set on fire in 1808 and the fire spread throughout the church, the dome fell, and the Church of St. Helena and the Temple of the Latins also damaged.
    *In 1810, the Romans took permission from the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II to renovate the church, they agreed to build a building – a building consisting of two rooms, the first is the vestibule – the Angel Church – and the small entrance covered with marble is the real gate of the original tomb, peace according to Christians’ belief – and still stands today.
    *In 1834 AD, during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim Pasha, an earthquake shook the church. In the late 19th century, in 1869, France, Russia and Turkey agreed to renovate the church – the last restoration – and they spent 40,000 pounds on it. For the year 1927, an earthquake affected the features of the city and the British government created the construction again with wood and reinforced cement iron between 1930 and 1933. Then hit the city another earthquake after the British evacuated responsibility for anyone entering the church and the seriousness of entry.
    Since 1947, the church not restored and stayed the same.

    The Status of the Church among the Christians:
    -In 451 AD, the status of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher raised when the Fourth Council declared its adoption as the Patriarchate of Jerusalem became the fourth Eastern Apostolic Patriarchate with Rome.
    -Over the years, the heritage of Christian holy sites flourished in Jerusalem, during the Ottoman period, the Ottoman regime protected by the Ottoman regime, which preserves the rights of the Christians of Jerusalem.
    -In the middle of the 17th century, the system provides for the Greek Orthodox, Latins, Armenians, Copts and Syriac Orthodox to have the right to oversee Christian holy sites, especially the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
    -The traditions of the Christians in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher existed for at least eight centuries. The customs dictate that 13 Arab families bear flags at the Holy Saturday before Easter, and that two Islamic family’s guard the church, namely, the families of Al-Joudeh and Al Nusseibeh, there mission is the opening of the gates of the church, this agreed by the Christians for centuries. One of the habits that prevailed in the old “take off the shoe” when entering the church, but this habit has disappeared with time.
    -The Custody of the Holy Land announced on 23/3/2016 that the churches of Jerusalem would restored to the tomb of Christ. The deterioration of the status of the grave is due to the increase in humidity and the flow of visitors to the church in a large way, also the intensity of the heat of candles, which light for hours at a very simple distance, contributing to the size of marble and the accumulation of black layer of oil by smoke. The Custody of Jerusalem said that it would rebuild the building located on top of the tomb to renovate by demolishing the current building. They report that the broken and thin pieces will replaced and the marble would cleaned and the foundations strengthened, the church contains five stages of the Via Dolorosa known to each Christian from the tenth stage. The church financed by three churches: Greek Orthodox and Armenian Franciscans with public and private contributions.

  • St. Hanna Church (St. Ann / School Authority)

    Landmark Location:
    North of Al-Aqsa Mosque between Bab Hatta and the Bab Alasbat.

    Landmark History:

    Between 1131 and 1139 AD.

    Reason of the name:

    Named after Maryam’s mother, bint Imran, May Allah be pleased with her.

    Builder Name:

    The Byzantines.

    Details of the shape:

    -The church characterized by a rectangular building with three corridors, the largest of which is the middle.
    The church floor paved with marble and the roof consists of several vaults intersecting a number of rectangular stone pillars, and in the middle of the ceiling, there is an altar covered with a semicircular dome. It characterized by a lack of decoration, this is because of the influence that it suffered from St.Benedictos. The decoration Concentrated in the altar of the work of Philip Kaplan in 1954, scenes of the birth of Christ and the embrace of Mary peace be upon him after he descended from the cross according to their belief. There is also a decoration in the crowns of the church columns where it sees the head of ox as the symbol of St. Luke, a statue that embodies the upper half of the human body and symbolizes St. Matta and some incomplete crowns. The church contains a cave on top of which a new stone dome and a small altar in front of it. According to the Christians, believe that the cave is the place to determine the birth of Mary peace be upon her and that is why the Crusaders built the church, there is a room containing the icon of the birth of Maryam.
    -As for the remains of the archaeological excavations, it revealed a pool with two basins and a causeway separating
    them, Roman wells, the ruins of a medical temple, the ruins of a Byzantine church and the church’s magnificence and several caves, that were used as wells, and some pottery, coins and mosaic floor of the Umayyad period. The church contains a pool (Hasda), which Christians believe from one of the miracles of Jesus peace be upon him, and there are in the east of the monastery toilets, also a beautiful garden contains a statue of Father Lavigeri, founder of the Order of the White Fathersm the garden place the monastery of nuns built by the Crusaders.
    -It said that the church was originally a pagan temple built by the Byzantines in a church in the fifth century AD.
    According to Christian belief that the land of the church inhabited by Yoaquim and Hanna the parents of Mary, peace be upon her, as for the origin of the historical church, it was in 530 churches named Mary Virgin and then burnt by the Persians, rebuilt and named to the Church of Hanna.
    -After the conquest of the city, Salah alddin change it to Rebat Alsaleheen, and a school of jurisprudence education of the Shafi’i in 1188 AD was called the AlSalahia School. Between 1821 and 1842 got an earthquake of the city and
    destroyed, the walls of the monastery and after the earthquake the Ottomans took the stones of the walls and made a military barracks next to the monastery. In 1855, the end of the Crimean War and the victory of the Ottomans and Russia, Sultan Abdul Majeed gave Napoleon III this monastery in recognition of France’s efforts to defend the Ottoman Empire, the monastery handed over in 1856 by the administrator Kamel Pasha, a school established there in 1878 and became an Ecclesiastical in 1882.
    -In World War I, the seminary converted into an Islamic college known as the College of Salahaddin by the leader Jamal Pasha, but they did not do any harm in the church and remained
    unchanged. In 1917, when Jerusalem occupied by Britain, they established a library and a museum there. As for visiting the monastery is available on all days except Sunday, the place closed at 12 o’clock for two, and there are
    fees for entry only for the children of the area.

2
حدث في مثل هذا اليوم

29 كانون الثاني الموافق 4 جمادى الآخرة تغيير