The Old Town in Jerusalem has several historical landmarks that are distinct from other landmarks, and there are: – The Wall of the Old Town; the current wall that shows the boundaries of the town. It is ever-present. – Jerusalem Castle, better known as “Herod Castle”. It lies to the west of the Old Town, and it has a long history spanning the ages. – The Marastan Al-Salahi (Al-Salahi Hospital). – Khaski Sultan Almshouse, which is a Mamluk palace – the Museum of Islamic monuments.
It dates back to the Ayyubids era, built in 583 AH - 1187 AD.
Reason of the name:
The word "Marstan" or "Moristan" in Persian is abbreviated at the hospital or "Dar al-Shifa".
Built by Salah Salahaddine al-Ayyubi.
- This Bimaristan is located west of the Holy City, close to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in the Dabbagh neighborhood.
-Current use the former Bimarstan included the bazaar market, the spot is located to its north, and part of the land on which the Church of the Ba’ath “Lutheran Church” located.
- Sultan Salahaddine entered the city of Jerusalem on the fourteenth day of Ramadan in 583 AH and ordered the construction of its walls and increased the suspension of the school that worked in Jerusalem and this school was before Islam famous for the document that mention that Sund Hanah or Mary peace be upon her, Before the
Frankish rule of Jerusalem, when Al-Farang ruled Jerusalem in 492 CE, they returned it to a church as it was before Islam.
-When Salah al-Din opened Jerusalem, he returned it to a school and delegated teaching to Baha’a al-Din ibn Shaddad, he ordered the adjacent marestana to be built next to his bathroom, and signed the positions and month drugs plentiful and authorized the judiciary and consider this stand to Judge Bahaa al-Din Yusuf bin Rafi Abu Tamim.
-Al-Nuwairi said: Sultan Salah al-Din decided on the pilgrimage and then returned to Jerusalem and arranged his conditions and appointed the church in the street of Ramamah Al-Baimarstan and transferred drugs and medicines.
- Ibn al-Qafati pointed to the Jerusalem Bimarstan, saying: the Jacob ibn Saflan Al Nasrani established in his condition in Jerusalem in the direct Bimarstan that his King Issa the son of the king just Abu Bakr bin Ayoub year 615 e.
- “The city of Jerusalem is “Hara” known as Al-Dibagha, which practiced on the tongues of people, that the Bimaristan Al-Salahi was in this area, and then he realized the ruins as he realized other effects, then there was an earthquake in 863,” wrote Adel Jabr Bek, director of the Islamic Museum and Dar al-Kut in Jerusalem 1458 AD.
- Made it an impact after Ain Fafout traces and the land lost and the rulers And other people selling and giving, he gave Sultan Abdul Hamid part of the ruins to the German state on the occasion of the visit of the Crown Prince of Jerusalem in 1896, where the Germans built a church opened by Emperor Gliom II in 1898 and said they found in the ruins of stones written written in the name of Salahaddine and his successors after him.
- There are many doctors who served in the medical industry in the city of Jerusalem, including:
1 – Yacoub ibn Saqlan Al Nasrani, Jerusalemist, born in the holy city of Jerusalem, read wisdom and medicine and lived in Jerusalem in the beginning of the Bimarstan until his king, King Issa, the son of the King, just transferred him to Damascus and specialized in him and realized gout and sore joints kept him moving until it was said that the great King If he needs him in the matter of his illness, he will call him in a haircut to be carried among the men, and Jacob died within the year 626 AH.
2 – Rashid al-Din al-Suri: He is Abu al-Mansour bin Abi al-Fadl bin Ali al-Suri was one of his time in the knowledge of individual medicines and their nature and the difference of names and attributes and achieve its characteristics born in the year 573 e in the city of Sour and grew up and then moved and worked in the industry of medicine Sheikh Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi, he Practicing medicine in the Bimaristan where he served the just king and then King Issa and then born King Al – Nasser Dawood and had a Damascus Council of Medicine and the community come to him and work on the industry and died on Sunday the first month of Rajab year 639 e 1242.
- It reported that after the destruction of this Marastan disappeared facilities that deal with the poor Jerusalem, and disappeared skilled doctors from the city, one of the travelers “Barbkit” who came to Jerusalem in the fifties of the ninth century, that there was no doctors in Jerusalem at the time.
Reason of the name:
Named by this name to indicate the ability of Maqdisi patience and endurance to prove its existence.
It’s Location in Respect of the Old Town
Located in the heart of the Old Town slightly tilted to the southwest of the Old Town.
Additional Information about the landmark
-The museum overlooks a pond of dry water called “Patriark’s Pool”.
-The museum is located in an old building that used during the Ottoman era as a bombardment for the Ottoman soldiers and then became a residence for some of the Jerusalemite families until it restored to a museum, small but it is great and large with its rare and precious.
-The museum has a main corridor leading into the museum, we can see from there a collection of rare photographs that represent the life styles of Jerusalem in the previous periods, which range from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, and then see a group of angles that represent a range of occupations and skills characterized by the holy man before.
-The museum’s supervisors seek to exploit its surface and turn it into a glass hall, which is occupied by a transparent dome of mosaic to transform the sun into bright iridescent colors with dazzling lighting that matches the rest of the nearby Jerusalem domes to reflect the city’s great features with sound and light.
- Located in an old 650-year-old building dating back to the Mameluk era, the museum offers a view of the normal life and the tools used Between the 18th century and the beginning of the 20th century.
Dating back to the Ottoman period.
Reason of the name:
Named after the wife of Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanoni.
Created by Roxlana, wife of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
It’s Location in Respect of the Old Town
Located in Mameluk Palace building, specifically in the oqbat Tekiya next to the door of the beholder, 50 meters from the maximum, in the middle of the Islamic quarter.
Details of the shape:
-A Mameluk palace building, overlapping built in many sections of the building of Saraya Al-Sitt Tanshq Al-Muthafriya.
-It consists of two ovens, a kitchen and a motwada’, the across ovens located on the eastern side of the Saraya, and reach it through the northern entrance of the Saraya on the road of Oqbat al-Mufti, this leads to an open courtyard that leads to stone steps.
-It descends from it to another exposed square, and on its northern and southern sides are the two stone furnaces, which are about two large square-shaped furnaces.
-There are a number of water taps on the western side of the façade, the kitchen is located behind the southern oven, and ascends to it several stairs, and reaches it from inside the Saraya.
-A section of which used as a laboratory for the orphanage school, the burial chamber is located south of the kitchen, it is a stone building, it was converted into an octagon by four contracts on each of the four facades, the area enclosed between the legs was filled with fillings, beautiful dome shape. It has a window in each of the four sides, the shrine is located in the middle of the room, a rectangular building that extends from west to east and believed to be the mausoleum of the mujahid Sheikh Saad al-Din al-Rasafi.
Additional Information about the landmark
-Roxelana, the wife of Suleiman al-Qanuni, arrested in 9690 AH – 1552 AD, the word “khaski Sultan” came in the sense of the beloved Sultan, a title given to Roxelana, the wife of Suleiman al Qanoni of Russia.
-Al-Takiya’s kitchen used to produce food for 5,000 to 10,000 people a day, it attended by the poor, the needy and the expatriates, it viewed by the biggest figure in Jerusalem, whether the Sultan, the governor or the mayor, the income of takiyeh shrunk, and it has relied on Islamic waqfs to cover their. Costs
-In addition to the good people.
-It serves all year round and provides fresh meals to the arrivals of the Al Aqsa Mosque and to the Almoravids in Jerusalem, as well as to the residents of the Old City, the surrounding villages and the camps, the daily meals are provided to 600 people on normal days.
-Al-Tikkia also aims at stabilizing the steadfastness of Jerusalemites in the context of poor living conditions, high poverty and unemployment, it also provides daily hot meals such as meat, chicken, rice and bread, and sometimes sweets and fruits.
The first building was in the Roman era, but the current construction of the castle in the majority of Islam dates back to the Ayyubids, Mameluk and Ottoman.
It was believed that the first to be build it is Herod Al-Edomi in 4-38 BC
It’s Location in Respect of the Old Town
Located on the western side of the Old Town
Details of the shape
-The castle, in addition to the rooms that used to use the offices of the leadership or prisons, on two mosques, one summer is below the minaret is not used now, and another winter is located in the eastern corner used by the occupation exhibition, and the wall contains many military fortifications such as shooting power and sparks and spindles used by soldiers to launch arrows or drop hot oil on their enemies.
-Its current form is a Mameluk Ayyubids Islamic building with Ottoman additions and restoration.
-The castle, surrounded by a large trench, is unique to the Old Town from the highest point in the town.
-Since the second century BC, the citadel stands against the invaders defending Jerusalem.
-Because of its importance and because it considered a symbol of the city of Jerusalem for hundreds of years, each governor took care to fortify and renovate it in order to surpass its predecessor and make it a source of pride.
-The oldest square in the castle square is a wall and a tower, which apparently formed the western boundary of the city in the Greek period.
-And hundreds of stones of catapult, arrow heads and ejaculation stones, which are likely to date back to the period of siege imposed by Antiokhus IV Greek Salukist ruler on the castle in its present form, it is Islamic character, and not the castle of Herod and not the Crusader castle and the Jewish archaeologists, who engraved on the site, acknowledge that the citadel in its present form “is the living example of the initiative of the rulers of Jerusalem (the Ayyubids and the Mameluk).
-The Ayyubids, like the great King Issa Ibn Ayyoub, built and restored it after the end Crusades, but since it is the only fortress left in Jerusalem.
-The Mameluk repaired and restored in the third and fourteenth centuries. ”
-The most important thing that can evoke feelings in the castle is the Arokum (Islamic inscriptions) found in it, indicating its ancient history, including the relics dating back to the reign of the Mameluk Sultan Nasir al-Din Muhammad ibn Qalawun, the true builder of the castle.
-The castle built in its present form with its walls, towers and mosque. There is an inscription indicating that this was done in 1310 AD.
- Qalawun also has its castle halls and mobile bridge, this bridge connects the majestic castle gate with its interior doors, above the ditch around it.
Additional Information about the landmark
From the names of the castle:
-The castle of Jerusalem has many names: “Herod’s castle”, “the castle of Bab al-Khalil”, “the castle of Jerusalem”, “the castle”, “the castle of the door of the mihrab of David”, “the castle of Pisa” During the Crusader occupation and proportion “of the sons of the city of Pisa of the Crusader armies.
-This name is not spread.
- And the “Tower of David” and this last name used wrongly “to this day and used by Israeli institutions.
History of the castle:
-The Romans built the castle of Jerusalem to be a castle of the city protected from any sudden invasion, the construction of the castle was at the weakest point in the Old City of Jerusalem in terms of fortifications compared to its other borders.
-Since the western part of the city is located in a high area and not surrounded by mountains, the castle is located on one of the four hills on which Jerusalem located.
-The castle followed by many periods of time extending from the 2nd century BC until the Ottoman Islamic era, each group added or restored the castle to an architectural addition, but it continued to use the headquarters of soldiers and soldiers throughout the various periods.
-The archeological king of the state of Palestine under the Romans, “Herod” the actual founder of the castle of Jerusalem, Although the castle built before he took over the city, he added new additions, including three towers (Fasayel, Hibikos, Maryam), and remained firmly entrenched.
-The castle is located in the corner of the southwestern castle, it considered one of the most important additions built during the reign of Sultan Abdul Malik bin Qalawun in 1310 AD.
-The minaret built by Sultan Ibn Qalawun in the castle of Jerusalem.
Judaizing the castle
-The occupation of the castle of Jerusalem calls the castle of David, in an attempt to attribute it to the prophet David, whom the Jewish religion considers the king of the Jewish state founded in Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago.
-They also called the Tower of David on the tower of Fasayel dating back to the time of Herod, when archaeological research proved that there was no connection to the Tower of David, the name of the Tower of David transferred to the minaret built by Sultan Ibn Qalawun.
-In the 1980s, the occupation opened the castle of internal and external tourism, turning it into a gallery that exposes the history of the city of Jerusalem from a Zionist point of view using illustrations and figures, trying to market the novel that Jerusalem has been Jewish forever.
-Anyone who comes to the Jerusalem Castle at this time notes that the occupation is trying to consolidate it is depicted in a three-dimensional space filled with Jewish pilgrims, how the Romans destroyed the Temple, and how the Muslims built the Al-Aqsa Mosque in its place.
And for continuous excavations
- Excavations began at the bottom of Jerusalem’s fort since the Ottoman period, Britain sent envoys of archaeologists and conducted excavations to study the remains of the city of Jerusalem.
-After the occupation of the city of Jerusalem in 1967, excavations continued under the castle since then to the present time.
- But the occupation intensified its excavations in the area of the castle three years ago, and revealed the Media Center for Jerusalem and al-Aqsa that the excavations under the castle up to eighty meters, and a depth of 15 meters. .
-These excavations resulted in the discovery of ancient Islamic monuments dating back to the Umayyad period and subsequent Islamic periods.
- Current use: In 1980, the castle converted into a museum called the ‘Castle of David’, where visitors hear about the alleged temple.
-The Talmudic museum includes the remains of rocks that are alleged to be from the Temple period, as well as exhibits, sculptures and historical paintings, while a guide speaks of the Israeli history of the city, especially the Talmudic details of the first and second Temple.
-In addition, the Israeli occupation of the castle to a showroom, in which Byzantine assets are also presented alongside the archaeological treasures of the Talmud, to legitimize and legitimize his novel with a subtly devoid of Arab-Islamic history.
-The mosque, which characterized by the beauty of its mantle and its stone minbar, adorned with elaborate Arabic inscriptions, surrounded by a gallery of exhibits and Muslims are prevented from praying there.
-The occupation of the other part of the castle (building ‘Qashla’) to the Israeli police station and intelligence, to arrest the Jerusalemites and interrogate them during the events that take place in the Aqsa Mosque and Jerusalem.
-Part of the building handed over to the Israeli Museum of Jerusalem.
-Today, the building witness’s deep excavations of up to 20 meters, as well as the destruction of large strata of Islamic monuments, with the aim of turning it into a Jewish cultural center it’s called ‘Castle of David Museum’.
-On some nights, loud night concerts are organized and used in the so-called Noor Jerusalem Festival as part of the Judaization schemes.
The wall of Jerusalem built at the beginning of the Ottoman era, during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Al-Qanuni.
Reason of the name:
It named because it surrounds the Old Town of Jerusalem.
Built by Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanuni.
- Surrounds the Old Town from all sides.
-The wall of the city of Jerusalem extends over the old city, which covers an area of one square kilometer, the height of the wall varies from one location to another according to the natural terrain of the earth and the average wall thickness (2 meters).
-The limestone used in the construction of the current wall, of large stones used smaller stones in the construction of the upper parts of the building, in addition to the towers that constitute defensive points, and there are rectangular operators dimensions “longitudinal” at the top of the fence, used to fire from guns and firearms.
-There are a projections in some parts of the fence appear wide from the inside to provide freedom of movement for the archers, while looking narrow from the outside to provide adequate protection for the defenders of the fence, “as the perimeter of the fence tow mile and half a mile, wrap around Jerusalem from the four sides and lengths as follows:
- Northern: 3930 feet.
- East: 2754 feet.
-South: 3245 feet.
- Western: 2086 feet.
-The height of the fence is uneven in some areas to (30 m) and the length to (4200) meters.
-There are eleven doors in the Old Jerusalem Wall, seven of which are open:
- Bab al-Khalil / Bab Jaffa, located in the western wall.
- Bab al-Jadid / Bab al-Sultan Abdul Hamid II located on the northern side of the wall about one kilometer to the west of Bab al-Amoud.
-Bab al-Amoud / Damascus Gate / which located in the middle of the northern wall of the wall of Jerusalem.
- Bab Al-Sahira in the northern wall of the wall of Jerusalem and half a kilometer east of the door of the column.
-Bab Maghareba, which located in the western corner of the southern wall of Jerusalem, the smallest of the gates of Jerusalem.
- The door of the prophet David (Bab Sohion, which located in the southern wall of the wall of Jerusalem).
- The Black Gate (Alasbat) located in the eastern wall of the wall of Jerusalem.
-As for the four closed doors, all of them located on the southern and eastern sides of the mosque, which also located within the walls of the mosque, which is at the same time part of the wall of Jerusalem, namely:
- Bab Rahma and Bab Tawba, also called the Golden Gate, which located at a distance of (200) meters south of the Black Gate (Alasbat), and there prepared by a child in addition to a small door called funeral door.
- Named after its use in the removal of funerals after the prayer and buried in the neighboring cemetery is the cemetery of Bab al-Rahma.
-The single section is located in the southern wall of the fence near the southeast corner.
-Al-Thulathi Gate is located in the southern wall, which follows the single door directly and includes three slots each topped by a contract.
-The double door in the southern wall of the wall consists of two entrances, each of which surmounted by a wall, these three “single and triple double” doors rebuilt in the Umayyad period when the Khalipha Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan built the Dome of the Rock between 66 AH / 685 AD – 72 AH / 691 AD.
-It should note that some of the old doors of Jerusalem are the same doors in the wall of the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
-The wall demolished and rebuilt over the ages, and the first fortified wall was the city of Jerusalem
-In the early Bronze Age, this system evolved during the ages to include a double wall and a tunnel stretching from inside the city to the spring between the two walls, in order to protect the eye of the only water found in Jerusalem, “Ein Silwan / Ein Gehon”.
-In addition to the towers fortification of the spring which set up two pools to collect water, and this tunnel is older than the tunnel known as the tunnel of Ein Silwan.
-This fortification wall, towers and water spring were present during the history of the Torah scholars to enter David, peace be upon him for the city of Jerusalem, “according to the Biblical narrative” this lies the text in the Torah because it is practically impossible to implement the plan contained in the Torah.
-During the early Iron Age, the city experienced temporary migration, but did not affect the city’s life to the city and remained fences.
-The city fortified by the Assyrians in 701 BC, the city fortified in two ways by fortifying the city with a wall known as the Wide Wall, which included for the first time Sohoin Mount, New Tunnel “The Silwan / Ain Um al-Daraj tunnel”, which is 1,700 feet long.
-The city destroyed by Nebukhad Nassar and destroyed its walls in 561 CE and its inhabitants. The city of Jerusalem remained without fortifications until the arrival of the new rulers of Jerusalem, who sent by the Persians in 583 BC, they were Jews.
- During the Greek period in 332 BC, the city expanded and reached its border to the Tal Moriah north and east of Sohioun Mount in the west and Tal Al-Dohour south, and included the construction of the Hamra castel between the Tal Al-Dohour and Tal Moria.
-The same border during the first Roman period in Herod’s reign, but in addition to the existing walls and Hakra castle, Herod built the castle of Antonia, the castle of Jerusalem, called the Castel of David, on the western plateau of Jerusalem near Sohioun Mount and several aqueducts and canals.
- The subsequent period of Herod’s rule saw the expansion of the city of Jerusalem to its maximum extent and included most of Silwan and the Old City today, Salahaddin Street and Nablus Street.
-In 70 AD Titus destroyed the city completely, and the Emperor Hadrian built it within the current scheme on which the city and put the approximate size today and redesigned the city, but the Byzantines and expanded the city again and entered Silwan inside the Old Town, which was the city at the Islamic conquest. Through the first Islamic covenants with the observation that the only castle that maintained its existence is the castle of Jerusalem “Castle of David”.
- In 1099, after the escape of the Fatimid’s and breaking the wall of Jerusalem from the north-west, the Crusaders took over the city and massacred its inhabitants, and they re-fortification of the city and the restoration of the walls and the castle.
- In 1187, Salahaddin liberated the city and entered it from Bab al-Amud, he ordered the demolition of the walls of the city of Jerusalem and ordered only the restoration of the castle and digging a trench around the castle, his nephew Al Muadam Issa, the demolition orders of the city for fear that the Crusaders would reoccupy, reconciliation with the King Ayyubids re-fortification of the city.
-But King Nasser Al Ayyubi left the city without a wall during the Mameluk period, with a significant restoration and reconstruction of the Holy Castle.
-With the beginning of the Ottoman era in addition to the restoration of the castle, Sultan Suleiman Al-Qanuni built the current wall of Jerusalem with its current dimensions, which took Sohiuon Mount and the village of Silwan outside the walls of Jerusalem, there are several reasons behind the motive of building the wall, and it is likely to be religious reasons in recognition of the importance of the city. During the Ottoman and Jordanian periods.