Sultan Abdul Hamid II
The Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who ruled as a Calipha between 1876 and 1909, was one of the fierce defenders of Al-Quds Al-Sharif. He refused any negotiations with Theodore Herzl, regarding Jewish emigration and settlement there. The Jews conspired with Europe and established the Committee of Union and Progress. Sultan Abdul Hamid II was ousted from the office by this committee.